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The final U-value will be comprised of a number of elements: the base wall U-value (see below), an adjustment factor for façade restraints and fixings, such as rainscreen helping hand brackets or masonry wall ties, and an adjustment for insulation restraint fixings. Plastic insulation fixings can most likely be ignored. Often, however, at least one metal insulation restraint fixing is required for each insulation board.
This report is a code red for humanityAntonio Guterres, IPCC
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For detailed design and certification, the final U-value should be assessed with numerical modelling to BS EN ISO 10211 – Thermal bridges in building construction – heat flows and surface temperatures – detailed calculations. This can be achieved in Therm or other proprietary heat flow / thermal bridging software packages but may require a combination of 2D and 3D calculations. However, for early-stage design decisions, a base calculation to BS EN ISO 6946 and BRE Digest 465 will provide reasonable results and can be carried out in U-value calculation software such as BuildDesk or BRE U-value calculator. Then the outputted U-value should be increased by +4-5% to improve the accuracy in line with numerical calculation to BS EN ISO 10211. (The original BR 465 equation is derived from U-values ranging from 0.45-0.20 W/m².K and errors creep in at U-values outside this range). A calculated base U-value of 0.100 W/m².K should therefore be adjusted to 0.105 W/m².K.
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Irrespective of which calculation approach is adopted, there are several stages necessary to build an accurate U-value. These are summarised in the flowchart on the following page and specified below.